Chairman: Prof. Li Ji-Jun Dean of Resource and Environment
School, Lanzhou University,
Lanzhou, Gansu, P.R. China (E-mail: email@example.com; Tel. & Fax: +86-931-891-1282)
Co-Chairman: Prof. Arnt Bronger, President of Paleopedology
of INQUA, Dept. of Geography, University of Kiel, D-24098, Germany
(E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Fax: +49-431-880-4658 )
Secretary: Prof. Fang Xiao-Min, Dept. of Geography, Lanzhou
University, Lanzhou, Gansu,
P.R. China (E-mail: email@example.com; Tel. & Fax: +86-931-891-3362)
Prof. Lu Jinggang, Dept. of Soil Sci., Zhejiang Agriculture University, Hangzhou,
Zhejiang, P.R.China ( Tel: +86-571-604-1733 Ext. 2675)
Treasurer: Assoc. Prof. Chen Huai-Lu, Dept. of Geography,
Members and conveners:
Prof. Zhou Shang-Zhe, Head, Dept. of Geography, Lanzhou
(E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel: +86-931-891 1175)
Prof. Zhong Jun-Ping, Head, Dept. of Soil Science, Xinjiang
Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R.China (E-mail: email@example.com; Fax: +86-991-452 0159)
Prof. Tang Bang-Xing, Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards
and Environments, CAS,
Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R.China (Fax: +86-28-555 2258)
Prof. Gong Zitong, Nanjin Institute of Soil Science, CAS,
Beijingdong-Lu 73, Nanjin,
Jiangsu, P.R.China (Fax: +86-21-771 4759)
Prof. Lu Yanchou, Institute of Geology, State Seismology
Bureau, Beijing, P.R.China
(Fax: +86-10- 6491 9140)
Dr. Guo Zhengtang, Institute of Geology, CAS, Beijing, P.R.China
(E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Fax: +86-10- 6491 9140)
Prof. Yugo Ono, Graduate School of Environment and Earth Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060, Japan (E-mail: email@example.com; Fax: +81-11-736 3091)
Prof. Rob Van der Voo, Dept. of Geological Sciences, the
University of Michigan, Ann
Arbor, MI 48109-1063, U.S.A. (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Fax: +1-313-763 4690)
Prof. Subir Banerjee, Dir., Institute for Rock Magnetism,
University of Minnesota,
293 Shepherd Labs. 100 Union Str. S.E., Minneapolis, MN55455-0128, U.S.A.
(E-mail: email@example.com; Fax: +1-612-625 7502)
Prof. Dennis Nettleton, USDA-SCS, USA (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Dr. Rob Kemp, Dir., Quaternary Research Centre, Royal Holloway,
Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK (E-mail: email@example.com; Fax: +44-1784-472 836)
Dr. L. Zoller, Max-Planck Institute, 69162 Heidelberg, Germany
Dr. Alexander Makeev, Secretary of PP Commission, Soil Institute of Moscow State University, Science Park, building 1,Vorobyevy Goru, 119899 Moscow, Russia (E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Fax: +7-95-932 9195)
Prof. John Catt, Vice-President of PP Commission, Rothamsted
Harpenden, Herts, AL5 2JQ, UK (E-mail: John.Catt@bbsrc.ac.uk; Fax: +44-1582-760 981)
Profs. Liu Tung-Sheng, Shi Ya-Feng, Sun Hong-Lie, and Zhu Xian-Mo
The symposium will have two main themes:
(A) Quantitative pedogenetic indicators of climate change and improving the precision of dating paleosols; these are required to obtain high resolution paleoclimatic records from paleosol sequences. Recent multidisciplinary field and laboratory work, such as the application of rock magnetism to paleosols, has created new growth areas and promises considerable progress in quantifying past climatic change.
(B) Response of the soil system to large-amplitude, rapid (millenial
scale) climatic change; the potential role of paleopedology in
determining high-resolution climate change raises the need to
rethink many traditional soil concepts. This topic forms the
core of the INQUA Paleopedology Commission project on "Response
of soil formation to short warm episodes of summer Asian monsoon".
The symposium will bring together paleopedologists of many different
backgrounds, to share knowledge and results from many parts of
the world, to plan future paleopedological contributions to determining
past climatic change and to see the high-resolution loess-paleosol
sequences in China.
The symposium will be held in the Kexuegong (Hall of Sciences)
on the Main Campus of Lanzhou University, 216 Tianshuilu, Lanzhou,
Gansu Province 730000, People's Republic of China.
The official language of the symposium will be English. All symposium
publications will be prepared in English.
Number of Participants
The maximum number of places available is 60, of which approximately
30 are reserved for foreign and 30 for domestic participants.
July 19-25 Pre-conference excursion (Kashgar to Turpan)
July 26 Registration
July 27-30 Conference sessions
July 27 Evening reception
July 28 Mid-conference excursion
July 31 - August 7 Post-conference excursion
Travel to China from other countries should be arranged by the
participants themselves. China Airline, China East Airline and
China South Airline and their authorised agents in most countries
can recommend connecting flights to Lanzhou via Chinese cities,
such as Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong. Transportation from
Lanzhou Airport to Lanzhou University (ca. 80 km) will be available
free of charge for all participants, but only on Registration
Day (July 26). The return jouurney to the airport will also be
available free of charge after the symposium on July 31 and after
the post-conference excursion on August 8. Participants who arrive
at or return to Lanzhou Airport on other days should hire a taxi
(cost US$ 20-30 for single journey depending on quality of cars)
or use the airport bus (cost approximately US$ 5 for single journey).
The Registration Fee for the symposium is US$180**. This will
cover all sessions of the symposium, a copy of the abstracts,
a bag, pen and notepaper, five days' accommodation in Lanzhou
University (July 26-30), a reception banquet (July 27) and the
mid-conference field excursion. The registration fee for accompanying
participants is US$150. Participants will share a double room
or apartment. Those who prefer a single room or hotel accommodation
should make their own hotel bookings (see below), and will pay
a registration fee of only US$150.
There will be six half-day sessions:
(A) Genesis of Late Pleistocene and Holocene soils in relation to environmental change (Convenors: A. Makeev and Lu Jingguang)
(B) Pedological signals of millenial climatic fluctuations
(Convenors: R.Kemp, Y.Ono and Li Jijun)
(C) Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism of soils - enhancement of magnetic susceptibility in soils
(Convenors: S.Banerjee, R.Van der Voo and Fang Xiaomin)
(D) Quantification of biotic and abiotic soil/paleosol properties used as indicators of paleoclimate and geomorphological evolution
(Convenors: A.Bronger and Guo Zhengtang)
(E) Paleosol identification, classification and terminology
(Convenors: J.Catt, D.Nettleton and Gong Zitong)
(F) Dating of paleosols
(Convenors: L. Zöller and Lu Yonchou)
"Paleosol evidence for reconstruction of famous archeological
and historical cities along the Silk Road in the Tarim-Turpan
Basin", led by Professor Zhong Junping.
This excursion will start at the famous Chinese Muslim city of
Kashi (Kashgar), at the western end of the Tarim Basin, which
extends for 2800 km. The 7-day excursion will cross the heart
of the "Death Sand Sea" (Taklimakan Desert) from south
to north by a new highway to Luntai, then the southern Tian Shan
Mountains will be traversed into the Turpan Basin, and the excursion
will finish at Turpan City (the second lowest place on earth).
Desert soils, non-monsoon-driven loess-paleosol sequences, ancient
archeological and historic sites, oases and special irrigation
systems will be seen, also the mystic and fantastic Flame Mountains
and Aiding Lake made famous in the Chinese Legend "The Stories
The daily itinerary is:
July 18: Arrival to Kashgar.
July 19: Kashgar - Schache - Hotan, about 500 km over the Gobi Desert, visiting oases.
July 20: Hotan - Yutian, with a visit to the largest oasis on the northern foot of the Kunlun Shan Mountains, its farming system and historic sites.
July 21: Loess-paleosol sequences at Pulu village at the foot of the Kunlun Shan
July 22: Yutian - Minfong - Luntai, about 600 km through the heart of the Taklimakan Desert, crossing the Tarimu River to see sand-dunes and impressive evidence of climatic change
July 23: Luntai - Turpan, to see the southern Tian Shan Mountains and loess-paleosol sequences in the Turpan Basin
July 24: Visits to Flame Mountains, Aiding Lake and special irrigation system at Karez
July 24: Evening departure (11:30 p.m.) by train to Lanzhou
July 26: Arrival in Lanzhou (6:00 a.m.)
The price of this excursion is US$700 based on a minimum of 10
foreign participants travelling together. A higher fee will apply
if fewer than 10 register. The maximum possible number is 15.
The train fare Turpan - Lanzhou is an additional US$80. For
further information contact Prof. Zhong Junping, Department of
Soil Science, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang
830052, P.R.China (Tel: +86 991 452 0139; Fax: +86 991 452 0159;
e-mail: email@example.com). The full price of US$700 should be
paid by June 20 to Dr. Jinjiang Wang (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org;
Fax: +1-504-388 2302) at Account No.0436897511, Campus Federal
Credit Union Bank, P.O. Box 16049, Baton Rouge, LA 70893, USA.
Among other possibilities you might be intersted to come to Kashgar via Islamabad (International Airport), having an exiting addition to your pre-Conference tour. From Islamabad a flight is available to Gilgit (ca. 40 US$), however, "depending on the weather". Therefore you must be aware to go to Gilgit by public bus (very cheap but a very tough job, 20 hrs) or by a hired car, which is possible when we are in a group which seems to be already the case (at least 5 persons from Germany registered). From Gilgit you have to hire a car through the marvellous Hunza-valley via Karimabad, Pasu to Sust (Pakistan border) along the Karakorum Highway. Next day youe have to pass the Pakistan-China-border via the Kunjerab-Pass close to 5000 m a.s.l.. From there a public bus is available across the the Eastern Pamir plateau (4000-3200m) via Taxkorgan, passing the Muztagata (7546m) and the Kongur-Shan (7719m), going down to the Kashgar oasis (ca. 1200m), where you have to arrive on July 17. Therefore you need to come to Islamabad on July 13 (the flight to Gilgit, if the weather forecasts are ok, starts at about 7 o'clock in the morning.
Those who are interested in this approach to
Kashgar may contact A. Bronger (email: email@example.com).
On July 28 the intinerary will include the world's thickest loess-paleosol
sections (318 m) in the Jiuzhoutai-Baitashan and Gaolanshan Parks,
the 23 m-thick high-resolution sequence of the late Last Glacial
at Shajinping in the eastern Lanzhou Basin, the Huang He (Yellow
River) terraces T1-T7, tourist parks and a bird's-eye view of
Lanzhou City. Lunch will consist of the world-famous hand-made
Lanzhou Lamian (beef noodles). The cost is included in the registration
fee. The excursion starts and ends at Lanzhou University. Leaders:
Fang Xiaomin, Pan Baotian, Dai Xuerong and Yugo Ono.
"Modern soils and loess-paleosol sequences of the Western
Loess Plateau, the North-eastern Tibetan Plateau and the West
Qinling Mountains", led by Fang Xiaomin, Pan Baotian and
The excursion will start and end at Lanzhou University, taking
8 days to cover 2100 km. Travelling from the Western Loess Plateau
to the North-east Tibetan Plateau and the West Qinling Mountains,
then returning to the Loess Plateau, it will provide a unique
opportunity to trace changes in modern soils and loess-paleosol
sequences between these three large geographical units that provide
evidence for uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the history of
changes in air circulation and monsoonal climate. It will also
cover the Cenozoic stratigraphy, the lake and river ecology of
the Tibetan Plateau, the history of the Yellow River, glacial
and periglacial geomorphology and sediments, karst and tufa geomorphology,
neotectonics and debris flows and their prevention. Social events
will include a visit to one of the largest Tibetan temples (Lapulun
Temple), talks with Tibetan people, a search for pandas in the
National Panda Conservation Park, the World Natural Heritage site
of the Huanglong-Jiuzhaigou National Park (the most beautiful
natural scene in China), a large banquet, and talks with local
Government officials and geoscientists at Wudu in West Qinling.
If time allows, it will also include visits to archeological
and historic sites related to ancient Chinese cultures. At least
17 sites showing loess-paleosol and debris flow sequences as evidence
for uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and evolution of the Asian Monsoon
will be included. Further details can be obtained at http://www.fadr.msu.ru/inqua.
The daily itinerary is:
July 31: Lanzhou - Lintao - Linxia, loess-paleosol sequences and archeological sites
August 1: Linxia - Xiahe, red beds, terraces and Lapulun Temple
August 2: Xiahe - Hezuo - Gahai - Maqu - Zoige, Tibetan geomorphology, loess-paleosol sequences, karst features, lake and Huang-He sediments
August 3: Zoige - Zhangla - Chuanzusi (Songpan), periglacial geomorphology, loess- paleosol sequences and history of Huang-He and Zoige Basin
August 4: Chuanzusi - Jiuzhaigou, Huanglong-Jiuzhaigou National Park
August 5: Jiuzhaigou - Nanping, Huanglong-Jiuzhaigou National Park
August 6: Nanping - Wenxian - Wudu, debris flows and their prevention
August 7: Wudu - Tanchang - Minxian - Lintao - Lanzhou, debris
flows, loess- paleosol sequences and peat sediments
The fee for this excursion is US$580, based on a minimum of 30-40
participants travelling together and assuming some central and
local government financial support. This price will include transport,
accommodation for eight nights, sightseeing tickets, guidebook
and a banquet at Wudu. A deposit of US$180 per participant must
be paid by June 20, 1998 to Dr. Jinjiang Wang (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org;
Fax: +1-504-388 2302) at Account No. 0436897511, Campus Federal
Credit Union Bank, P.O. Box 16049, Baton Rouge, LA 70893, USA.
Bookings will not be accepted after June 20. The balance should
be paid in cash at the time of registration in Lanzhou. The maximum
number of participants is 50.
Publication of Abstracts and Papers
Abstracts of papers to be presented at the symposium should be
typed in single line-spacing on A4 paper (210 x 297 mm) using
12-pt Times New Roman print. All four margins should be 32 mm
(1.25 inches) wide. They should be sent by e-mail or by post
as laser-printed paper copies. Abstracts and requests for presentation
as oral or poster papers should be sent to the Secretary of the
Symposium (Prof. Fang Xiaomin, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu
Province 730000, P.R.China; e-mail: email@example.com) no later
than January 31, 1998. Notification of acceptance of abstracts
will be issued in writing by February 28, 1998.
Papers selected on quality will be published in full after the
symposium in Quaternary International or Chinese Science Bulletin.
Further details will be issued at the symposium.
Passports and Visas
All foreigners entering P.R.China must have a valid passport.
In addition, a Visitor (F) Visa is required for official participation
in the conference in Lanzhou. Those participating in any excursion
will also require official military permission, as closed forbidden
military areas will be visited. Without this type of visa and
military permission, participation in the excursions will be impossible.
Holders of a Tourist (L) Visa are banned from any activity in
China other than sightseeing.
Each application for a Visitor (F) Visa must be accompanied by
an official letter of invitation issued by the National Education
Commission of China (NECC). Military permissions will be issued
by central and relevant local military divisions on receipt of
documentation of status issued by the NECC. This documentation
will not be available until NECC have issued a letter of invitation.
To obtain all these items in good time, it is necessary to commence
the application no later than March 31,1998. This should be done
by sending a brief individual curriculum vitae containing personal
and passport information to the Secretary of the Symposium, Prof.
Fang Xiaomin, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000.
P.R.China (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; fax +86 931 891 3362).
Deadlines for Participants
January 31, 1998: Abstracts should be sent to Fang Xiaomin
March 31, 1998: Curriculum vitae should be sent to Fang Xiaomin
June 20, 1998: A deposit of US$180 must be sent to Dr. Jinjiang
Wang for attendance at the post-conference excursion, and the
full price of the pre-conference excursion (US$700) should be
paid to Dr. Jinjiang Wang.
For those not wishing to use the university accommodation, five
hotels near Lanzhou University are open to foreigners. The prices
quoted below are per person per day in November 1997, and may
be changed before August 1998.
|Name||Single Room||Double Room|
|Fax: +86 931 841 8438||Y500 (US$60)|
|Fax: +86 931 841 8608||Y500 (US$60)||Y410 (US$50)|
|A,B,P,R,TV||B,P,R,TV (new facilities)|
|*Panxiuan-Lu||Y330 (US$40)||Y320 (US$40)|
|Legend (Feitian) Hotel|
|Fax: +86 931 888 7876||Y667 (US$ 82)||Y667 (US$82)|
*within 700 m of the conference centre
A: attached sitting room; P: phone
B: attached bathroom and toilet; R: refrigerator
This circular is distributed with Paleopedology Newsletter 14
and EOS (American Geophysical Union Newsletter), and worldwide
through internet web server at address http://www.fadr.msu.ru/inqua,
which is linked to INQUA and ISSS home pages.
Electronic registration form
Please return the following form by e-mail or air mail to Fang Xiaomin or any conveners.
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX (Please type in Yes or tick where appropriate. Blank means No.) ********************************************************************* a I want to attend the conference only ( ) b I want to attend the pre-conference excursion ( ) c I want to attend the mid-conference ( ) d I want to attend the post-conference ( ) e I hope to present an oral paper ( ) or a poster ( ) provisionally entitled : _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ My phone, fax and correspondence air and e-mail addresses: ______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ For Your Record I booked to attend the conference only ( ) I booked to attend the pre-conference excursion ( ) I paid US$700 for the pre-conference excursion ( ) I booked to attend the post-conference excursion ( ) I paid the deposit for the post-conference excursion ( ) I have asked to present an oral paper ( ) I have asked to present a poster paper ( ) I have sent my curriculum vitae to Fang Xiaomin ( ) I have booked my hotel room ( )
**This specially reduced registration fee depends on obtaining supporting funds from Chinese governmental organisations and on participants using shared apartments or double rooms.
Picture tour to post-conference excursion
Picture tour to post-conference excursion
The post-conference excursion will cover parts of the Western Loess Plateau, the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau and the West Qinling Mountains.
The Western Loess Plateau (ca. 2000 m above sea level) is underlain by the Longzhong Basin of Cenozoic red-beds, which are over 2000 m thick. It is bordered by the north-south Liupan Shan Mountains to the east, the west-east West Qinling Mountains to the south and the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau to the southwest and south (Fig. 1). These borders are important barriers, trapping the winter monsoon and the dust it carries from the northwestern Gobi Desert, and hindering the summer monsoons that bring rain from the Pacific and Indian Oceans (Fig. 1). For example, the West Qinling, at an average elevation of 3000 m, is the boundary between the subtropical and temperate zones. Because of this landform effect, the high dust input rate to the Longzhong Basin has resulted in deposition of at least 200 m of loess on the Western Loess Plateau. The Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, with heights of 3500-4000 m, is the source area for Chang Jiang (the Yangtze River) running through the Chengdu Basin and Huang He (the Yellow River) flowing through Lanzhou City in the Longzhong Basin (Figs 1 and 2).
Loess is discontinuously distributed over the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau and West Qinling, the thickest sections being 60-80 m and deposited over the last 0.7-0.8 Ma. On the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau and southern Qinling it is different in composition and has a different origin from that on the Loess Plateau. It is "cold loess" and comes mainly from the Tibetan Plateau itself, whereas on the Loess Plateau it is "hot loess" derived principally from the Asian interior, especially the Gobi Desert (Figs 1 and 2). In contrast to the monotonous periglacial desert landscape prevailing in the central and western parts of the Tibetan Plateau, the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau has (a) vivid changes of geomorphology, soils and vegetation with elevation, (b) thick loess-paleosol sequences and (c) human cultural sites.
The excursion will include 18 stops (Figs 1 and 2):
Stop 1 is at Beiyuan in Linxia County to see the famous Beiyuan loess-paleosol section on the extensive third terrace of the Daxia River (Fig. 3), a major tributary of the Huang He. The section is 39 m thick and contains at least 16 recognisable paleosols, of which five date from the Last Interglacial (Fig. 4) and 10 from the Last Glacial. The paleosols in this section can be correlated with all oxygen isotope warm peaks 1-24 in the GRIP ice core from Greenland.
Stop 2 shows the Cenozoic stratigraphy and morphostratigraphic features (including terrace history) of the Linxia Basin (Fig. 3), which record the history of uplift of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The basin deposits consist of red-beds overlain by fluvial and lacustrine deposits and loess-paleosol sequences. The red-beds consist mainly of siltstones and mudstones (Fig. 5) dated paleomagnetically to 29-4.3 Ma. They are overlain unconformably by a thick fanglomerate dated to 3.6-2.6 Ma, which indicates the first rapid uplift of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau. An Early Quaternary (2.5-1.8 Ma) lacustrine sediment follows, but the lake was drained by a tectonic event about 1.8 Ma, and the Huang He then appeared in the basin. With subsequent uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and climatic change, the Huang He incised this sequence of beds and created at least seven extensive terraces, which have been stable areas for loess accumulation and soil development (Fig. 3).
Stop 3 is the Tibetan Lapulun Temple (Fig. 6) in Xiahe County and nearby loess-paleosol sequences on terraces of the Daxia He.
Stop 4 shows the Tibetan loess-paleosol sequence and planation surfaces near Hezuo (Figs 7 and 8). The loess-paleosol sequence here has formed mainly since the Last Interglacial and is several tens of metres thick (Fig. 7). Two planation surfaces occur on the Tibetan Plateau, the Mountain Top Surface (Planation Surface I) and the Main Surface (Planation Surface II), both uplifted above tropical and subtropical plains. They form stable and easily traceable flat surfaces (Fig. 8), on which remains of tropical and subtropical deep weathered mantles and karst features are preserved (Fig. 9), though periglacial soils and geomorphological features are also widespread.
Stop 5 is a salt lake (Gahai) on the Main Surface, to see its ecology and shoreline geomorphology.
Stop 6 is the first big bend of the Huang He, resulting from tectonism, on the Main Surface in Maqu County. Holocene terraces and Holocene loess and sand dunes can be seen.
Stop 7 is the remains of karst landforms developed in the Miocene on the Main Surface between Maqu and Zoige.
Stop 8 is to see limnic sediments in the Zoige Basin, which contains the largest area of peat on the Tibetan Plateau. Two boreholes to depths of 120 and 310 m in the centre of the basin have revealed a continuous climatic history over the last 1 Ma.
Stop 9 shows the typical periglacial geomorphology and soils on the interfluve between the Hei He (first tributary of the Huang He) and Min Jiang (first tributary of the Chang Jiang) and evidence for the evolution of the Huang He.
Stop 10 shows paleosols and loess at Chuanzusi in Songpan County in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. This loess-paleosol sequence provides evidence for climatic change from the last glacial to the Holocene and for the origin of loess at 500-800 m above sea level in the Chengdu Basin (Figs 1 and 2).
Stop 11 is to see tills and glacial landforms around Xuebaoding Mountain (5588 m a.s.l.) on the margin of the eastern Tibetan Plateau.
Stop 12 shows tufa and glaciated landforms in the Huanglong National Park. The bedrock of the park is mainly Devonian to Triassic limestones, which have been partly dissolved by rain and snow meltwater and the carbonate has been reprecipitated as tufa in warmer conditions on lower valley slopes and bottoms. There are fantastic stepped landforms associated with tufa ponds and waterfalls (Figs 10 and 11). We can walk on the tufa sheets under a thin cover of flowing water to appreciate their beauty.
Stop 13 shows the glaciated landscape of the Jiuzhaigou National Park, with waterfalls (Figs 12 and 13) and glacially impounded lakes vividly coloured by algae and with reflections of colourful trees (Fig. 14). Subtropical to temperate and tundra soils and vegetation can also be seen.
Stop 14 shows past and modern debris flows (Fig. 15) and the loess-paleosol sequences of Naping, Wenxian and Wudu Counties.
Stop 15 includes remains of tropical karst and laterites on the fragments of the typical ancient peneplains between Wenxian and Wudu. The peneplains were tectonically deformed during uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and Qinling Mountains.
Stop 16 at Wudu shows the thickest loess-paleosol sequence in Qinling. It is on the third or fourth terrace of the Bailong Jiang, the first tributary of the Chang Jiang, and consists of 60 m of loess with nine cinnamon-like paleosols rich in snails. A thin debris flow occurs in the upper part of the sequence and a 30 m-thick debris flow in the lower part. It therefore provides important evidence for climatic change at the boundary between the subtropical and temperate zones in Qinling and for a history of landslip hazard.
Stop 17 at Mazichuan in Minxian County shows fluviolacustrine sediments and loess on the interfluve between the Tao He (a tributary of the Huang He) and the Bailong Jiang.
Stop 18 will include archeological sites in Lintao County with evidence of representative ancient Chinese cultures.
Captions for Figures
Fig. 1. Geomorphological map of western China showing excursion routes. The inset map indicates the mean wind directions for January 1961-70 at 1500 m a.s.l. Arrows indicate mean monsoonal directions for winter and summer in the area of the post-conference excursion.
Fig. 2. Geomorphological map of the post-conference excursion area.
Fig. 3. Terraces T1-T7 of Daxia He and Huang He in the Linxia Basin. Each terrace is covered by thick loess-paleosol sequences. The famous Beiyuan section is on T3 (see Fig. 4). Below the terraces are Cenozoic red-beds (Fig. 5), fanglomerates and Early Quaternary lacustrine sediments.
Fig. 4. Lowermost part of the Beiyuan loess section containing the five paleosols S1-a to S1-e of the Last Interglacial.
Fig. 5. Middle part of the Linxia red-bed exposure. Note the large colour change from deep reddish-purple to light yellowish-brown in the upper part, indicating a major ecological and climatic change at ca. 7-8 Ma.
Fig. 6. Part of the famous Tibetan Lupulun Temple.
Fig. 7. Loess-paleosol sequence of the Last Glacial and Holocene at Hezuo on the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau.
Fig. 8. The Main Surface (Planation Surface II) of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, on which there is a large area of modern periglacial hummocks and humic soils.
Fig. 9. Frost-disturbed remains of deep weathered mantle below modern humic soil on the Main Surface of the Tibetan Plateau.
Fig. 10. Tufa ponds in the Huanglong National Park.
Fig. 11. Waterfall and tufa sheets formed over shrubs in the Huanglong National Park.
Fig. 12. The Shuzheng Waterfall in the Jiuzhaigou National Park (also national panda conservation area).
Fig. 13. The Gao (Panda Hai) Waterfall linked with Panda Hai (lake) in the Jiuzhaigou National Park.
Fig. 14. Glacial lake in the Jiuzhaigou National Park.
Fig. 15. Modern viscous debris flow in a gully on the rim of the Tibetan Plateau.