International Quaternary Union / International Society of Soil Science Paleopedology Commission
Working Group of Paleosol and Paleoclimatic Change in Eastern and Central Asia
Working Group on Geopedology of Soils in China

International Symposium and Field Workshop on Paleosols and Climatic Change

27 July - 7 August 1998

Second Circular

Lanzhou University,Lanzhou, P.R. China

Sponsored by

INQUA; National Natural Science Foundation of China; National Education Commission of China; China Quaternary Commission;

China Soil Science Society; Lanzhou University

Organizing Committee:

Chairman: Prof. Li Ji-Jun Dean of Resource and Environment School, Lanzhou University,
Lanzhou, Gansu, P.R. China (E-mail:; Tel. & Fax: +86-931-891-1282)

Co-Chairman: Prof. Arnt Bronger, President of Paleopedology (PP) Commission
of INQUA, Dept. of Geography, University of Kiel, D-24098, Germany
(E-mail:; Fax: +49-431-880-4658 )

Secretary: Prof. Fang Xiao-Min, Dept. of Geography, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu,
P.R. China (E-mail:; Tel. & Fax: +86-931-891-3362)
Prof. Lu Jinggang, Dept. of Soil Sci., Zhejiang Agriculture University, Hangzhou,
Zhejiang, P.R.China ( Tel: +86-571-604-1733 Ext. 2675)

Treasurer: Assoc. Prof. Chen Huai-Lu, Dept. of Geography, Lanzhou University

Members and conveners:

Prof. Zhou Shang-Zhe, Head, Dept. of Geography, Lanzhou University
(E-mail:; Tel: +86-931-891 1175)

Prof. Zhong Jun-Ping, Head, Dept. of Soil Science, Xinjiang Agriculture University,
Urumqi, Xinjiang, P.R.China (E-mail:; Fax: +86-991-452 0159)

Prof. Tang Bang-Xing, Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environments, CAS,
Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R.China (Fax: +86-28-555 2258)

Prof. Gong Zitong, Nanjin Institute of Soil Science, CAS, Beijingdong-Lu 73, Nanjin,
Jiangsu, P.R.China (Fax: +86-21-771 4759)

Prof. Lu Yanchou, Institute of Geology, State Seismology Bureau, Beijing, P.R.China
(Fax: +86-10- 6491 9140)

Dr. Guo Zhengtang, Institute of Geology, CAS, Beijing, P.R.China
(E-mail:; Fax: +86-10- 6491 9140)

Prof. Yugo Ono, Graduate School of Environment and Earth Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060, Japan (E-mail:; Fax: +81-11-736 3091)

Prof. Rob Van der Voo, Dept. of Geological Sciences, the University of Michigan, Ann
Arbor, MI 48109-1063, U.S.A. (E-mail:; Fax: +1-313-763 4690)

Prof. Subir Banerjee, Dir., Institute for Rock Magnetism, University of Minnesota,
293 Shepherd Labs. 100 Union Str. S.E., Minneapolis, MN55455-0128, U.S.A.
(E-mail:; Fax: +1-612-625 7502)

Prof. Dennis Nettleton, USDA-SCS, USA (E-mail:

Dr. Rob Kemp, Dir., Quaternary Research Centre, Royal Holloway, London University,
Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX, UK (E-mail:; Fax: +44-1784-472 836)

Dr. L. Zoller, Max-Planck Institute, 69162 Heidelberg, Germany

Dr. Alexander Makeev, Secretary of PP Commission, Soil Institute of Moscow State University, Science Park, building 1,Vorobyevy Goru, 119899 Moscow, Russia (E-mail:; Fax: +7-95-932 9195)

Prof. John Catt, Vice-President of PP Commission, Rothamsted Experimental Station,
Harpenden, Herts, AL5 2JQ, UK (E-mail:; Fax: +44-1582-760 981)


Profs. Liu Tung-Sheng, Shi Ya-Feng, Sun Hong-Lie, and Zhu Xian-Mo


The symposium will have two main themes:

(A) Quantitative pedogenetic indicators of climate change and improving the precision of dating paleosols; these are required to obtain high resolution paleoclimatic records from paleosol sequences. Recent multidisciplinary field and laboratory work, such as the application of rock magnetism to paleosols, has created new growth areas and promises considerable progress in quantifying past climatic change.

(B) Response of the soil system to large-amplitude, rapid (millenial scale) climatic change; the potential role of paleopedology in determining high-resolution climate change raises the need to rethink many traditional soil concepts. This topic forms the core of the INQUA Paleopedology Commission project on "Response of soil formation to short warm episodes of summer Asian monsoon".

The symposium will bring together paleopedologists of many different backgrounds, to share knowledge and results from many parts of the world, to plan future paleopedological contributions to determining past climatic change and to see the high-resolution loess-paleosol sequences in China.


The symposium will be held in the Kexuegong (Hall of Sciences) on the Main Campus of Lanzhou University, 216 Tianshuilu, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000, People's Republic of China.

Official Language

The official language of the symposium will be English. All symposium publications will be prepared in English.

Number of Participants

The maximum number of places available is 60, of which approximately 30 are reserved for foreign and 30 for domestic participants.

Outline Timetable

July 19-25 Pre-conference excursion (Kashgar to Turpan)

July 26 Registration

July 27-30 Conference sessions

July 27 Evening reception

July 28 Mid-conference excursion

July 31 - August 7 Post-conference excursion


Travel to China from other countries should be arranged by the participants themselves. China Airline, China East Airline and China South Airline and their authorised agents in most countries can recommend connecting flights to Lanzhou via Chinese cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong. Transportation from Lanzhou Airport to Lanzhou University (ca. 80 km) will be available free of charge for all participants, but only on Registration Day (July 26). The return jouurney to the airport will also be available free of charge after the symposium on July 31 and after the post-conference excursion on August 8. Participants who arrive at or return to Lanzhou Airport on other days should hire a taxi (cost US$ 20-30 for single journey depending on quality of cars) or use the airport bus (cost approximately US$ 5 for single journey).


The Registration Fee for the symposium is US$180**. This will cover all sessions of the symposium, a copy of the abstracts, a bag, pen and notepaper, five days' accommodation in Lanzhou University (July 26-30), a reception banquet (July 27) and the mid-conference field excursion. The registration fee for accompanying participants is US$150. Participants will share a double room or apartment. Those who prefer a single room or hotel accommodation should make their own hotel bookings (see below), and will pay a registration fee of only US$150.

Scientific Sessions

There will be six half-day sessions:

(A) Genesis of Late Pleistocene and Holocene soils in relation to environmental change (Convenors: A. Makeev and Lu Jingguang)

(B) Pedological signals of millenial climatic fluctuations

(Convenors: R.Kemp, Y.Ono and Li Jijun)

(C) Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism of soils - enhancement of magnetic susceptibility in soils

(Convenors: S.Banerjee, R.Van der Voo and Fang Xiaomin)

(D) Quantification of biotic and abiotic soil/paleosol properties used as indicators of paleoclimate and geomorphological evolution

(Convenors: A.Bronger and Guo Zhengtang)

(E) Paleosol identification, classification and terminology

(Convenors: J.Catt, D.Nettleton and Gong Zitong)

(F) Dating of paleosols

(Convenors: L. Zöller and Lu Yonchou)

Pre-Conference Excursion

"Paleosol evidence for reconstruction of famous archeological and historical cities along the Silk Road in the Tarim-Turpan Basin", led by Professor Zhong Junping.

This excursion will start at the famous Chinese Muslim city of Kashi (Kashgar), at the western end of the Tarim Basin, which extends for 2800 km. The 7-day excursion will cross the heart of the "Death Sand Sea" (Taklimakan Desert) from south to north by a new highway to Luntai, then the southern Tian Shan Mountains will be traversed into the Turpan Basin, and the excursion will finish at Turpan City (the second lowest place on earth). Desert soils, non-monsoon-driven loess-paleosol sequences, ancient archeological and historic sites, oases and special irrigation systems will be seen, also the mystic and fantastic Flame Mountains and Aiding Lake made famous in the Chinese Legend "The Stories of Monkey".

The daily itinerary is:

July 18: Arrival to Kashgar.

July 19: Kashgar - Schache - Hotan, about 500 km over the Gobi Desert, visiting oases.

July 20: Hotan - Yutian, with a visit to the largest oasis on the northern foot of the Kunlun Shan Mountains, its farming system and historic sites.

July 21: Loess-paleosol sequences at Pulu village at the foot of the Kunlun Shan

July 22: Yutian - Minfong - Luntai, about 600 km through the heart of the Taklimakan Desert, crossing the Tarimu River to see sand-dunes and impressive evidence of climatic change

July 23: Luntai - Turpan, to see the southern Tian Shan Mountains and loess-paleosol sequences in the Turpan Basin

July 24: Visits to Flame Mountains, Aiding Lake and special irrigation system at Karez

July 24: Evening departure (11:30 p.m.) by train to Lanzhou

July 26: Arrival in Lanzhou (6:00 a.m.)

The price of this excursion is US$700 based on a minimum of 10 foreign participants travelling together. A higher fee will apply if fewer than 10 register. The maximum possible number is 15. The train fare Turpan - Lanzhou is an additional US$80. For further information contact Prof. Zhong Junping, Department of Soil Science, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, P.R.China (Tel: +86 991 452 0139; Fax: +86 991 452 0159; e-mail: The full price of US$700 should be paid by June 20 to Dr. Jinjiang Wang (e-mail:; Fax: +1-504-388 2302) at Account No.0436897511, Campus Federal Credit Union Bank, P.O. Box 16049, Baton Rouge, LA 70893, USA.

Among other possibilities you might be intersted to come to Kashgar via Islamabad (International Airport), having an exiting addition to your pre-Conference tour. From Islamabad a flight is available to Gilgit (ca. 40 US$), however, "depending on the weather". Therefore you must be aware to go to Gilgit by public bus (very cheap but a very tough job, 20 hrs) or by a hired car, which is possible when we are in a group which seems to be already the case (at least 5 persons from Germany registered). From Gilgit you have to hire a car through the marvellous Hunza-valley via Karimabad, Pasu to Sust (Pakistan border) along the Karakorum Highway. Next day youe have to pass the Pakistan-China-border via the Kunjerab-Pass close to 5000 m a.s.l.. From there a public bus is available across the the Eastern Pamir plateau (4000-3200m) via Taxkorgan, passing the Muztagata (7546m) and the Kongur-Shan (7719m), going down to the Kashgar oasis (ca. 1200m), where you have to arrive on July 17. Therefore you need to come to Islamabad on July 13 (the flight to Gilgit, if the weather forecasts are ok, starts at about 7 o'clock in the morning.

Those who are interested in this approach to Kashgar may contact A. Bronger (email:

Mid-Conference Excursion

On July 28 the intinerary will include the world's thickest loess-paleosol sections (318 m) in the Jiuzhoutai-Baitashan and Gaolanshan Parks, the 23 m-thick high-resolution sequence of the late Last Glacial at Shajinping in the eastern Lanzhou Basin, the Huang He (Yellow River) terraces T1-T7, tourist parks and a bird's-eye view of Lanzhou City. Lunch will consist of the world-famous hand-made Lanzhou Lamian (beef noodles). The cost is included in the registration fee. The excursion starts and ends at Lanzhou University. Leaders: Fang Xiaomin, Pan Baotian, Dai Xuerong and Yugo Ono.

Post-Conference Excursion

"Modern soils and loess-paleosol sequences of the Western Loess Plateau, the North-eastern Tibetan Plateau and the West Qinling Mountains", led by Fang Xiaomin, Pan Baotian and Chen Huilu.

The excursion will start and end at Lanzhou University, taking 8 days to cover 2100 km. Travelling from the Western Loess Plateau to the North-east Tibetan Plateau and the West Qinling Mountains, then returning to the Loess Plateau, it will provide a unique opportunity to trace changes in modern soils and loess-paleosol sequences between these three large geographical units that provide evidence for uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and the history of changes in air circulation and monsoonal climate. It will also cover the Cenozoic stratigraphy, the lake and river ecology of the Tibetan Plateau, the history of the Yellow River, glacial and periglacial geomorphology and sediments, karst and tufa geomorphology, neotectonics and debris flows and their prevention. Social events will include a visit to one of the largest Tibetan temples (Lapulun Temple), talks with Tibetan people, a search for pandas in the National Panda Conservation Park, the World Natural Heritage site of the Huanglong-Jiuzhaigou National Park (the most beautiful natural scene in China), a large banquet, and talks with local Government officials and geoscientists at Wudu in West Qinling. If time allows, it will also include visits to archeological and historic sites related to ancient Chinese cultures. At least 17 sites showing loess-paleosol and debris flow sequences as evidence for uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and evolution of the Asian Monsoon will be included. Further details can be obtained at

The daily itinerary is:

July 31: Lanzhou - Lintao - Linxia, loess-paleosol sequences and archeological sites

August 1: Linxia - Xiahe, red beds, terraces and Lapulun Temple

August 2: Xiahe - Hezuo - Gahai - Maqu - Zoige, Tibetan geomorphology, loess-paleosol sequences, karst features, lake and Huang-He sediments

August 3: Zoige - Zhangla - Chuanzusi (Songpan), periglacial geomorphology, loess- paleosol sequences and history of Huang-He and Zoige Basin

August 4: Chuanzusi - Jiuzhaigou, Huanglong-Jiuzhaigou National Park

August 5: Jiuzhaigou - Nanping, Huanglong-Jiuzhaigou National Park

August 6: Nanping - Wenxian - Wudu, debris flows and their prevention

August 7: Wudu - Tanchang - Minxian - Lintao - Lanzhou, debris flows, loess- paleosol sequences and peat sediments

The fee for this excursion is US$580, based on a minimum of 30-40 participants travelling together and assuming some central and local government financial support. This price will include transport, accommodation for eight nights, sightseeing tickets, guidebook and a banquet at Wudu. A deposit of US$180 per participant must be paid by June 20, 1998 to Dr. Jinjiang Wang (e-mail:; Fax: +1-504-388 2302) at Account No. 0436897511, Campus Federal Credit Union Bank, P.O. Box 16049, Baton Rouge, LA 70893, USA. Bookings will not be accepted after June 20. The balance should be paid in cash at the time of registration in Lanzhou. The maximum number of participants is 50.

Publication of Abstracts and Papers

Abstracts of papers to be presented at the symposium should be typed in single line-spacing on A4 paper (210 x 297 mm) using 12-pt Times New Roman print. All four margins should be 32 mm (1.25 inches) wide. They should be sent by e-mail or by post as laser-printed paper copies. Abstracts and requests for presentation as oral or poster papers should be sent to the Secretary of the Symposium (Prof. Fang Xiaomin, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000, P.R.China; e-mail: no later than January 31, 1998. Notification of acceptance of abstracts will be issued in writing by February 28, 1998.

Papers selected on quality will be published in full after the symposium in Quaternary International or Chinese Science Bulletin. Further details will be issued at the symposium.

Passports and Visas

All foreigners entering P.R.China must have a valid passport. In addition, a Visitor (F) Visa is required for official participation in the conference in Lanzhou. Those participating in any excursion will also require official military permission, as closed forbidden military areas will be visited. Without this type of visa and military permission, participation in the excursions will be impossible. Holders of a Tourist (L) Visa are banned from any activity in China other than sightseeing.

Each application for a Visitor (F) Visa must be accompanied by an official letter of invitation issued by the National Education Commission of China (NECC). Military permissions will be issued by central and relevant local military divisions on receipt of documentation of status issued by the NECC. This documentation will not be available until NECC have issued a letter of invitation. To obtain all these items in good time, it is necessary to commence the application no later than March 31,1998. This should be done by sending a brief individual curriculum vitae containing personal and passport information to the Secretary of the Symposium, Prof. Fang Xiaomin, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu Province 730000. P.R.China (e-mail:; fax +86 931 891 3362).

Deadlines for Participants

January 31, 1998: Abstracts should be sent to Fang Xiaomin

March 31, 1998: Curriculum vitae should be sent to Fang Xiaomin

June 20, 1998: A deposit of US$180 must be sent to Dr. Jinjiang Wang for attendance at the post-conference excursion, and the full price of the pre-conference excursion (US$700) should be paid to Dr. Jinjiang Wang.

Hotel Information

For those not wishing to use the university accommodation, five hotels near Lanzhou University are open to foreigners. The prices quoted below are per person per day in November 1997, and may be changed before August 1998.
NameSingle Room Double Room
Jincheng Hotel
Fax: +86 931 841 8438 Y500 (US$60)
*Donggang-LuY398 (US$50)
Lanzhou Hotel
Fax: +86 931 841 8608Y500 (US$60) Y410 (US$50)
A,B,P,R,TVB,P,R,TV (new facilities)
*Panxiuan-LuY330 (US$40) Y320 (US$40)
Legend (Feitian) Hotel
Fax: +86 931 888 7876Y667 (US$ 82) Y667 (US$82)
*Panxiuan-LuB,P,R,TV B,P,R,TV


*within 700 m of the conference centre

A: attached sitting room; P: phone

B: attached bathroom and toilet; R: refrigerator


This circular is distributed with Paleopedology Newsletter 14 and EOS (American Geophysical Union Newsletter), and worldwide through internet web server at address, which is linked to INQUA and ISSS home pages.

Electronic registration form

Please return the following form by e-mail or air mail to Fang Xiaomin or any conveners.

(Please type in Yes or tick where appropriate. Blank means No.)

a   	I want to attend the conference only       			(       )
b  	I want to attend the pre-conference excursion   		(       ) 
c   	I want to attend the mid-conference		   		(       )
d	I want to attend the post-conference	    			(       )
e     	I hope to present an oral paper (       ) or a poster  (      ) provisionally entitled :



My phone, fax and correspondence air and e-mail addresses: 



For Your Record

I booked to attend the conference only			(	)
I booked to attend the pre-conference excursion		(	)
I paid US$700 for the pre-conference excursion		(	)
I booked to attend the post-conference excursion	(	)
I paid the deposit for the post-conference excursion	(	)
I have asked to present an oral paper			(	)
I have asked to present a poster paper			(	)
I have sent my curriculum vitae to Fang Xiaomin		(	)
I have booked my hotel room				(	)

**This specially reduced registration fee depends on obtaining supporting funds from Chinese governmental organisations and on participants using shared apartments or double rooms.

Picture tour to post-conference excursion

The post-conference excursion will cover parts of the Western Loess Plateau, the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau and the West Qinling Mountains.

The Western Loess Plateau (ca. 2000 m above sea level) is underlain by the Longzhong Basin of Cenozoic red-beds, which are over 2000 m thick. It is bordered by the north-south Liupan Shan Mountains to the east, the west-east West Qinling Mountains to the south and the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau to the southwest and south (Fig. 1). These borders are important barriers, trapping the winter monsoon and the dust it carries from the northwestern Gobi Desert, and hindering the summer monsoons that bring rain from the Pacific and Indian Oceans (Fig. 1). For example, the West Qinling, at an average elevation of 3000 m, is the boundary between the subtropical and temperate zones. Because of this landform effect, the high dust input rate to the Longzhong Basin has resulted in deposition of at least 200 m of loess on the Western Loess Plateau. The Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, with heights of 3500-4000 m, is the source area for Chang Jiang (the Yangtze River) running through the Chengdu Basin and Huang He (the Yellow River) flowing through Lanzhou City in the Longzhong Basin (Figs 1 and 2).

Loess is discontinuously distributed over the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau and West Qinling, the thickest sections being 60-80 m and deposited over the last 0.7-0.8 Ma. On the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau and southern Qinling it is different in composition and has a different origin from that on the Loess Plateau. It is "cold loess" and comes mainly from the Tibetan Plateau itself, whereas on the Loess Plateau it is "hot loess" derived principally from the Asian interior, especially the Gobi Desert (Figs 1 and 2). In contrast to the monotonous periglacial desert landscape prevailing in the central and western parts of the Tibetan Plateau, the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau has (a) vivid changes of geomorphology, soils and vegetation with elevation, (b) thick loess-paleosol sequences and (c) human cultural sites.

The excursion will include 18 stops (Figs 1 and 2):

Stop 1 is at Beiyuan in Linxia County to see the famous Beiyuan loess-paleosol section on the extensive third terrace of the Daxia River (Fig. 3), a major tributary of the Huang He. The section is 39 m thick and contains at least 16 recognisable paleosols, of which five date from the Last Interglacial (Fig. 4) and 10 from the Last Glacial. The paleosols in this section can be correlated with all oxygen isotope warm peaks 1-24 in the GRIP ice core from Greenland.

Stop 2 shows the Cenozoic stratigraphy and morphostratigraphic features (including terrace history) of the Linxia Basin (Fig. 3), which record the history of uplift of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The basin deposits consist of red-beds overlain by fluvial and lacustrine deposits and loess-paleosol sequences. The red-beds consist mainly of siltstones and mudstones (Fig. 5) dated paleomagnetically to 29-4.3 Ma. They are overlain unconformably by a thick fanglomerate dated to 3.6-2.6 Ma, which indicates the first rapid uplift of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau. An Early Quaternary (2.5-1.8 Ma) lacustrine sediment follows, but the lake was drained by a tectonic event about 1.8 Ma, and the Huang He then appeared in the basin. With subsequent uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and climatic change, the Huang He incised this sequence of beds and created at least seven extensive terraces, which have been stable areas for loess accumulation and soil development (Fig. 3).

Stop 3 is the Tibetan Lapulun Temple (Fig. 6) in Xiahe County and nearby loess-paleosol sequences on terraces of the Daxia He.

Stop 4 shows the Tibetan loess-paleosol sequence and planation surfaces near Hezuo (Figs 7 and 8). The loess-paleosol sequence here has formed mainly since the Last Interglacial and is several tens of metres thick (Fig. 7). Two planation surfaces occur on the Tibetan Plateau, the Mountain Top Surface (Planation Surface I) and the Main Surface (Planation Surface II), both uplifted above tropical and subtropical plains. They form stable and easily traceable flat surfaces (Fig. 8), on which remains of tropical and subtropical deep weathered mantles and karst features are preserved (Fig. 9), though periglacial soils and geomorphological features are also widespread.

Stop 5 is a salt lake (Gahai) on the Main Surface, to see its ecology and shoreline geomorphology.

Stop 6 is the first big bend of the Huang He, resulting from tectonism, on the Main Surface in Maqu County. Holocene terraces and Holocene loess and sand dunes can be seen.

Stop 7 is the remains of karst landforms developed in the Miocene on the Main Surface between Maqu and Zoige.

Stop 8 is to see limnic sediments in the Zoige Basin, which contains the largest area of peat on the Tibetan Plateau. Two boreholes to depths of 120 and 310 m in the centre of the basin have revealed a continuous climatic history over the last 1 Ma.

Stop 9 shows the typical periglacial geomorphology and soils on the interfluve between the Hei He (first tributary of the Huang He) and Min Jiang (first tributary of the Chang Jiang) and evidence for the evolution of the Huang He.

Stop 10 shows paleosols and loess at Chuanzusi in Songpan County in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. This loess-paleosol sequence provides evidence for climatic change from the last glacial to the Holocene and for the origin of loess at 500-800 m above sea level in the Chengdu Basin (Figs 1 and 2).

Stop 11 is to see tills and glacial landforms around Xuebaoding Mountain (5588 m a.s.l.) on the margin of the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

Stop 12 shows tufa and glaciated landforms in the Huanglong National Park. The bedrock of the park is mainly Devonian to Triassic limestones, which have been partly dissolved by rain and snow meltwater and the carbonate has been reprecipitated as tufa in warmer conditions on lower valley slopes and bottoms. There are fantastic stepped landforms associated with tufa ponds and waterfalls (Figs 10 and 11). We can walk on the tufa sheets under a thin cover of flowing water to appreciate their beauty.

Stop 13 shows the glaciated landscape of the Jiuzhaigou National Park, with waterfalls (Figs 12 and 13) and glacially impounded lakes vividly coloured by algae and with reflections of colourful trees (Fig. 14). Subtropical to temperate and tundra soils and vegetation can also be seen.

Stop 14 shows past and modern debris flows (Fig. 15) and the loess-paleosol sequences of Naping, Wenxian and Wudu Counties.

Stop 15 includes remains of tropical karst and laterites on the fragments of the typical ancient peneplains between Wenxian and Wudu. The peneplains were tectonically deformed during uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and Qinling Mountains.

Stop 16 at Wudu shows the thickest loess-paleosol sequence in Qinling. It is on the third or fourth terrace of the Bailong Jiang, the first tributary of the Chang Jiang, and consists of 60 m of loess with nine cinnamon-like paleosols rich in snails. A thin debris flow occurs in the upper part of the sequence and a 30 m-thick debris flow in the lower part. It therefore provides important evidence for climatic change at the boundary between the subtropical and temperate zones in Qinling and for a history of landslip hazard.

Stop 17 at Mazichuan in Minxian County shows fluviolacustrine sediments and loess on the interfluve between the Tao He (a tributary of the Huang He) and the Bailong Jiang.

Stop 18 will include archeological sites in Lintao County with evidence of representative ancient Chinese cultures.

Captions for Figures

Fig. 1. Geomorphological map of western China showing excursion routes. The inset map indicates the mean wind directions for January 1961-70 at 1500 m a.s.l. Arrows indicate mean monsoonal directions for winter and summer in the area of the post-conference excursion.

Fig. 2. Geomorphological map of the post-conference excursion area.

Fig. 3. Terraces T1-T7 of Daxia He and Huang He in the Linxia Basin. Each terrace is covered by thick loess-paleosol sequences. The famous Beiyuan section is on T3 (see Fig. 4). Below the terraces are Cenozoic red-beds (Fig. 5), fanglomerates and Early Quaternary lacustrine sediments.

Fig. 4. Lowermost part of the Beiyuan loess section containing the five paleosols S1-a to S1-e of the Last Interglacial.

Fig. 5. Middle part of the Linxia red-bed exposure. Note the large colour change from deep reddish-purple to light yellowish-brown in the upper part, indicating a major ecological and climatic change at ca. 7-8 Ma.

Fig. 6. Part of the famous Tibetan Lupulun Temple.

Fig. 7. Loess-paleosol sequence of the Last Glacial and Holocene at Hezuo on the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

Fig. 8. The Main Surface (Planation Surface II) of the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, on which there is a large area of modern periglacial hummocks and humic soils.

Fig. 9. Frost-disturbed remains of deep weathered mantle below modern humic soil on the Main Surface of the Tibetan Plateau.

Fig. 10. Tufa ponds in the Huanglong National Park.

Fig. 11. Waterfall and tufa sheets formed over shrubs in the Huanglong National Park.

Fig. 12. The Shuzheng Waterfall in the Jiuzhaigou National Park (also national panda conservation area).

Fig. 13. The Gao (Panda Hai) Waterfall linked with Panda Hai (lake) in the Jiuzhaigou National Park.

Fig. 14. Glacial lake in the Jiuzhaigou National Park.

Fig. 15. Modern viscous debris flow in a gully on the rim of the Tibetan Plateau.